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Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disability
by Dr Mohammed S. Hussain*
Cite as : (2002) PL WebJour 3

"In nature there is no blemish but the mind;
none can be called deformed but the unkind."
(William Shakespeare: Twelfth Night)


The core principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, is that "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights." This has guided the United Nation's Disability Programme. The notion of human dignity and human rights for the disabled should be fundamental to every society. Human dignity means self-determination, self-respect and integrity. The very concept of human rights implies that they are common to all human beings and must therefore be universally applicable.

However, despite all efforts, persons with disabilities are still denied equal opportunities and remain isolated in many of our societies. The rights of individuals with disabilities examine the historical treatments of persons with various disabilities under the law and the current social, political and legal impact that recent disability rights legislation has had on society as a whole. Topics include special education rights; discrimination in education, housing, public accommodations, employment and access to governmental services; and decision-making and civil commitment may also be explored.

An attempt is made in this paper to deal with Persons With Disabilities (PWDs); irrespective of origin of disability generally categorized into person with physical impairment or person with mental impairment. However, the disability definition of all the leading countries with established disability law jurisprudence included the four key elements: (1) the physical impairment component; (2) the mental impairment component; (3) imputed/ascribed impairment imposed by others component; (4) people with a history of impairment.

How far the existing legislation or laws can come to the rescue of those persons in the State of Eritrea? Limitation of this paper is to the rights and dignity of persons with disability in the field of education and employment. The attitude of family, institution, rehabilitation, society and the State towards those persons who are very much vulnerable in status, condition, dignity etc., leading their life at the mercy of the system.

Causes and categories of disability

In Eritrea, there are 43,526 PWDs (more updated figure stands at over 60,000 disabled citizens according to Eritrea Profile: 29-12-2001; out of this number, 24,297 or 55.62% are males while 19,229 or 44.38% are females. Therefore, there are more disabled males than disabled females. There are different causes of disability; as per the survey of MOLHW, out of total PWDs 25,049 or 57.55% became disabled due to disease, 6551 or 15.05% due to accident and the rest 11,926 or 25.40% due to man-made and natural disasters.

When is a person considered disabled

A person is considered disabled if: he/she has a physical or mental impairment substantially limiting a major life activity; or he/she has a record of disability; or he/she is regarded as having a disability.

If the case deals with personal injury where a person becomes disabled by automobile accidents, motorcycle accidents, pedestrian accidents, slip or fall, dog bites, medical or legal issues or workers' compensation cases (accidents at work) crop up which are covered by various legal schemes or provisions and sometimes they lead to court litigations.

The term disability is very broad indeed

Disability includes: physical disability; physical illness or disease that makes, or has made, any part of the body or brain work differently; mental or psychiatric disability — including any behavioural disorder; intellectual disability; learning difficulty; disfigurement or different formation of any part of the body; any organism in the body that could cause disease or illness — for example, hepatitis with no symptoms or HIV with no symptoms.

Is discrimination against the PWDs, violation of law

Yes, it is generally against the law to treat you unfairly, or harass you, because of: (a) any disability you have now; (b) any disability that someone thinks you have now; (c) any disability you had in the past, or that someone thinks you had in the past; (d) any disability that someone knows you will get in the future, or that someone thinks you might get in the future; (e) any actual past, existing or future disability of any of your relatives, work colleagues, or people you associate with; (f) any past, existing or future disability that someone thinks that any of your relatives, work colleagues or people you associate with, had in the past, has now, or will have in the future. All these are considered to be discrimination, against the law.

Attitude of family

In the traditional family system, the family takes care of weaker members like the aged, widows and the disabled. The cost of treatment and care of PWDs are borne by their own families, who are unfortunate and often are castigated as being seen as some kind of punishment for past sins. Loaded with these kinds of ideas, the society proceeds to stereotype the image of a disabled as an unfortunate victim who has to get sympathy and pity and aid from others. Apart from it, the orphans, destitute and the disabled are looked after by religious and philanthropic organizations. For years together, they provide them shelter, food and clothing without realizing that they can improve them actively participate in real life. In families, whether it is a young widow or an elderly member with no income or be it a member with disability, they are solely a burden on the family. Social, emotional, financial or other problems of these disabled and/or dependent members are kept within the fort of the family not only because of the "stigma" attached to it but also because the family's pride relies on its ability to manage these problems within its own means and capacity, even if it is too much of a burden. Sense of pride in such matters is often gained from admiration expressed in these words, "Oh! That family is so well integrated that even their next-door neighbours could not get a clue of their child's disability." And revered are such families! On one hand, the credit goes to the family system and its ability to manage a variety of challenges and disabilities by itself; but on the other hand, this very quality of the family has kept the common concerns of some of the Eritrean population who are disabled at the level of "individual problems". The upper and middle class Eritrean family and its individualistic approach to this type of common challenge has prevented transformation of "individual issues" to "social issues". Disability has long been perceived as an "individual problem", therefore, resulting in the indifference of the society and the State.

In the families where the people live from hand to mouth, in such circumstances, the PWDs are often left to their own fate or at best, institutional confinement is resorted to as a solution. At this extreme end of the economic spectrum, families do not hesitate to abandon their disabled children, or look for institutionalised arrangements. In fact, the existence of shelter homes and sanatoriums, asylums etc., has been sustained by the needs of this section.


There is a great need to emphasise the importance of institutionalisation of arrangements in today's time because without these, one could never achieve a new level of development. Be it society, judiciary, government, media, communication networks or foreign policy, each of these is a vital component of a large system which has provided increased stability and quality of life to the citizen of the world. In the absence of good institutions and systems, no country can even dream to fulfil the basic and fundamental needs of its members. In the absence of institutions and institutionalisation of sustainable systems, the disabled members of the upper and the middle class would continue to live in isolation within the four walls of their families.

In the same way, the disabled members from the economically poor families would continue to resort to isolated "confinements", which unfortunately still exist particularly in the developing countries where the number of people living below the poverty line is quite large. Asylums with all the comforts or without comforts, can only be equated with prisons; and the disabled residents not only deserve freedom from these prisons, but their families also need to be relieved of the obligation of providing support from the cradle to the grave to members having disabilities. It is the new trend now that the balance is tilting in favour of self-help organizations that definitely demand "social" attention and solution to their concerns rather than "individual" sympathy.

The role of NGOs

There are NGOs whose goals are to assist persons in exercising their legal rights, to ensure that persons with disabilities receive necessary support and services to enable them to get and maintain the skills they need to live independent and productive lives in the community; to prevent abuse of, and discrimination against, persons with disabilities; and to ensure that all persons with disabilities receive the vocational rehabilitation services to which they are entitled. The organization has to provide free civil legal assistance to individuals with disabilities on legal issues related to their disabilities — issues such as abuse and neglect in all settings, rights violations regarding treatment, breach of confidentiality, institutional conditions, discrimination, habilitation services, special education, access to public services, public accommodation, case management, vocational rehabilitation services and assistive (modern) technology. They have to take up the community education workshops on legal issues related to disability, and publish legal education fact sheets on a wide range of issues such as special education, Disability Act (if it is there), rehabilitation services, assistive (modern) technology etc. "A War Child" is an NGO working on the issues of children in Eritrea. "Challenge — AID (Union)" is another NGO working on AIDS in Eritrea.


(a) Visually impaired

There is the Eritrean National Association of the Blind (ERNAB) established in 1996 which fights for the rights of visually impaired persons. If such national associations are formed depending upon the disability, most of the problems of PWDs will be solved.

(b) War Veterans

The Eritrean War Disabled Association (EWDA) is helping the war veterans to earn their livelihood on self-employment scheme. With the assistance of EWDA, thirteen (13) disabled war veterans with loan of Nfa. 5,50,000 started a bakery. In two years' time, they could pay the entire loan and were able to open a new bakery. Eleven (11) disabled war veterans, Hagaz, started Awengali Metal and Woodworks; now the surrounding areas are using the product of Awengali Furnitures only. Thus associations are also coming to the rescue of PWDs and joining them in the national building process.

(c) Hearing Impaired Association

This Association also fights for the cause of persons having hearing disability. Different nature of associations is indispensable, so that effective work could be undertaken.

(d) Diabetic Association

This Association works for the cause of the disease with which persons are suffering. Thus there are four legally established associations in the State of Eritrea.

(e) Cheshire Foundation

Before the liberation, there was active participation in helping the PWDs. Now, it is only the depository centre for information.

The existing laws to protect the PWDs

The rights of workers, children, orphans, duty retirees and the disabled are the tasks that the Eritrean Government is striving very hard to uphold through the Ministry of Labour and Human Welfare. The Eritrean Government is keen at ensuring social justice and equality of dignity among citizens. (emphasis added) The Eritrean family has been given a major role in the development and well-being of Eritrean society, the love and care of children and the respect and care of elders and the disadvantaged PWDs are enshrined in both the preamble and the body of the Constitution of Eritrea under Article 14(2), human dignity under Article 16, equal rights under Article 21(1) which runs "Every citizen shall have the right of equal access to publicly funded social services. The State shall endeavour, within the limit of its resources, to make available to all citizens health, education, cultural and other social services". (emphasis added)

Technically, rights are natural or acquired. The right to life and liberty, human dignity, equality etc., are natural rights. But the right to property, socio-economic, political affairs or positions are acquired by the individual via accepted methods and practices in civil participation of any given society and government. Limitation to one's capacity, juridical acts, protection etc., are enumerated under TCCE Articles 1-8, 192-4, 339 and 340. They may be declared as judicially interdicted persons or legally interdicted persons as per the Articles of Transitional Civil Code of Eritrea (TCCE).

Proclamation No. 118 of 2001: The Labour Proclamation of Eritrea, Article 3(30) says about disability — working conditions of the disabled under Article 63, equality of opportunities or treatment in employment and remuneration under Article 64(3), in case of accident in the workplace, degree of disablement and its assessment under Articles 74(1) to (4); amount of compensation under Articles 81(1) to (4). Benefits which PWDs get are not taxable under Article 83. These provisions may solve for the time being but do not have strong teeth to resolve the issue of PWDs. Hence a special legislation has to be enacted to protect the rights, dignity, equal opportunity etc., to cover all aspects of the life of PWDs.

Efforts of the Government of Eritrea (State) through Ministry

The Government of Eritrea has established a Community Based Rehabilitation Programme (CBRP) to assist the disabled to be self-reliant and to reintegrate them in the workforce. The programme has opened channels to reach communities directly at grass-root levels, particularly, through the training of local facilitators and village rehabilitation committees and has been made sustainable by the active participation of the communities. The coming into law of the draft national policy on disability will give further impetus to the programme since (a) it is anticipated that the Government will create further financial mechanisms for income-generation, and (b) the non-veteran disabled will, like the veterans, be supported in the creation of associations to enable them to take effective leadership in advocacy. The State has provided such legal provisions to the citizens to establish movement, assembly, association etc., under the Constitution.

Activities of the Ministry

The Ministry of Labour and Human Welfare (MOLHW) has adopted policy guidelines on issues concerning labour, social security and social welfare in consonance with the Macro-Economic Policy of the Government of Eritrea. Under the Social Welfare-Oriented Policy, the rights of children, senior citizens and PWDs shall be protected and ensured by creating conducive environment; rehabilitation programmes shall be adopted for persons with disabilities and other disadvantaged members of the society. Community-based rehabilitation programmes for persons with disability, the elderly and disadvantaged members of the society have been accorded top priority by means of establishing rehabilitation projects, strengthening service delivery, providing technical aid to disabled persons' organizations and protecting the rights of persons with disability. The Ministry also have to undertake these functions to do justice to the PWDs. Rehabilitation of people with disability may effectively be taken up by opening shelter workshops and educational and research institutions like the Institute of Visually Impaired, the Institute for the Mentally Impaired, the Institute for the Orthopaedically Impaired, the Institute for Hearing Impaired etc., providing basic education to individuals with disability, by funding NGOs, opening special schools and awarding scholarship for students with disability, providing employment through job reservations mainly in lower cadre or depending upon the magnitude of their disability in different types of government departments and encouraging the private organization to employ them, giving disabled people travel concessions and installing awards for disabled workers and institutions working for the welfare of the disabled.

In the sphere of education

Education in early childhood is the best method of avoiding dependence and leading a normal life for persons with disabilities. The policy of the Ministry of Education stresses that every Eritrean is entitled to free education at the elementary level. However, most of the persons with disabilities are illiterate due to various limitations. This is particularly grave in those who have mental disabilities and disorders and those with multiple disabilities. Consequently, it becomes extremely difficult for them to lead normal lives.

PWDs have the right to generally apply for and get education, and/or any educational benefits at any State educational establishment and private establishment, in the same way as people who do not have a disability. The school can only refuse the enrolment if PWDs cannot meet the relevant academic level, or if PWDs need special building adjustments, special services or special facilities that they (school authorities) cannot provide. They must make some adjustments to the building, and provide special services or facilities that PWDs need — unless it would cause them "unjustifiable hardship" to do this. This means that they must generally make adjustments to allow PWDs to attend classes, learn, study, and sit for tests and examinations. For example: (a) if PWDs have limited mobility, they should try to make sure that PWDs' classes are in rooms that are accessible and near enough to each other to allow PWDs to get to each class; (b) if PWDs have difficulty in writing, it may be appropriate for them to provide help with taping classes; (c) if PWDs need a reader, it may be appropriate for them to provide one or help with the cost of this. Not that educational establishments can provide education specifically for people with a particular type of disability. This means that these places can refuse admission to people who do not have that type of disability.

Rehabilitation of children in education

The total number of children with disabilities in Eritrea is estimated at 30,000. Intervention programmes introduced for children with disabilities were institutional-based and community-based rehabilitation.

Since independence, 2259 children with disabilities were enrolled in regular schools by community-based rehabilitation programme, 700 children with disabilities were provided appliance including prosthesis, orthotics, splint, crutches, spinal corset, baby's trolley and wheelchairs, 500 children were referred to the Asmara Physiotherapy Centre for medical treatment. Moreover, 145 children with disabilities are in the Asmara and Keren schools run by the Evangelical Church and 85 blind children are getting training in a school for the blind run by the Ministry of Education.

There are prosthetic and orthotic centres in the country including Abraha Bahta School for the visually impaired, the 50 years old Evangelical School for the Deaf (better to say, the hearing impaired) located at Paradiso, in Asmara and another in Keren. There were 10,000 hearing impaired persons in Eritrea in 1992. Hearing impaired are more than visually impaired. Zoba Debub is having a large number of hearing impaired persons. Facilities for these persons are very much meagre in education. The admission will be given when their hands (fingers) are good because it is the sign language by which the instructions are given. There is a hospital by the name of St. Mary's Psychiatric Hospital for the mentally impaired persons, at Dendan Camp, as well as at Maithmanai and Quazen also for the PWDs. For vocational training, there is a Mai Habar Vocational Training Centre which will also impart job-oriented training to PWDs. There is only an elementary school for visually impaired persons with a capacity of 10,419 where 7067 are totally blind; the rest are partially blind. (Eritrea Profile: 1-12-2001)

In the sphere of employment

There must be initiative to promote the full participation of disabled persons in all aspects and sectors of society. The 1995 Copenhagen Declaration views disability as a form of social diversity and points to the need for an inclusive response which strives to build a "society for all". ILO Convention No. 159 views disability as a condition of occupational disadvantage which can and should be overcome through a variety of policy measures, regulations, programmes and services. It calls upon countries to base their national policies on the principle of: (a) equality of opportunity; (b) equality of treatment; (c) mainstreaming of training and employment opportunities; (d) community participation; (e) tripartite consultations involving public authorities, worker and employer representatives; (f) consultations with representatives of and for disabled persons. ILO Recommendations Nos. 168 and 99 outline specific measures which might be introduced at the national level to promote employment opportunities for disabled people and call for these to conform to the employment and salary standards applicable to workers generally.

Unemployment is one of the biggest challenges that persons with disabilities and their families usually face. However, the Eritrean Government is seriously committed in ways and means of stimulating persons with disabilities to self-support and self-employment through vocational training in various jobs. It is laudable that the Government of Eritrea has provided more than 2% employment opportunities to the PWDs and this figure is more when we compare with the other countries. There are 48.71% persons who are victims of polio and physical deformity, eye-related 16.43%, ear-related 9.4%, mental-related 2.42%, others 22.94% (combined) and are employed in different departments.

The newly enacted labour law (Proclamation No. 118 of 2001) enunciates in detail of the necessity of employment of persons with disabilities after finishing vocational training; due inspection of their working conditions; making sure that they do not face discrimination either in the types of jobs undertaken or their salaries. If such discrimination takes place, the laws specify as to all the measures to be taken in such events.

Nevertheless, labour laws by themselves, are not sufficient to prevent discriminatory practices and to create equal opportunities for the disabled, at workplaces. Therefore, the creation and coherent application of specific norms that regulate and sanction work practices so as not to discriminate against persons with disability is of primary importance.

Protection of the human dignity of PWDs

Place the person before the disability out of respect for individual uniqueness and worth. Refer to an individual as a "person with a disability" or an "individual who has a disability" rather than a "disabled person" or a "disabled individual". Make reference to "people with disabilities" rather than "the disabled". The word "disabled", as a noun, implies separateness or total disability. "The disabled" do not constitute a group apart from the rest of society. Legislation on disability has to advance the dignity, self-determination and equality of individuals with disabilities. Hence, one should not call the blind as blind and the deaf as deaf; better call them or address them as persons with visual impairment and persons with listening/hearing impairment respectively.

We often use phrases like, "Do not act blindly", "Love is blind", "Blind belief", "Dumb-founded", "If a blind man leads another blind man; both fall in the ditch" and so on. The image of a blindfolded woman symbolises the impartiality of the law. What significance do these images and phrases have? If it is true that language is the vehicle of thought, are we not trying to translate real disabilities into imaginary metaphors? Are we not using art and language rather insensitively? Besides, such usage only perpetuates stereotypical assumptions about disabled persons. There is need for a fundamental transformation of both language and popular culture. Attempts must be made to depict real and positive image of disabled persons. Thus one can keep up the dignity of persons with disability.

Avoid referring to an individual by the condition she has such as "a quadriplegic, a CP and LD, an epileptic". Instead, refer to him/her as a person who ... "has a spinal cord injury, has cerebral palsy, has a learning disability, has epilepsy respectively. By calling the people with a different nickname, which will show their impairment in a different language or words, amounts to humiliation. Hence, such calling should be avoided. Be careful not to patronize any person with a disability. Avoid making sympathetic comments such as "Oh! Is it not terrible, she cannot see anything?" Such comments most likely are annoying to a person with a disability as well as to any companion who may be accompanying them. Most people with disabilities have accepted their disabilities and their lifestyles. In fact, their lifestyles, particularly the alternative means by which they accomplish tasks, may very well be natural for them.

Legislation for PWDs in the world

All the PWDs have inherent right to equality of dignity and equal opportunities in participation of nation-building process. This is an issue of universal concern having human rights dimension. Based on this, many countries have enacted legislation on PWDs.

At the start of the 21st century, few countries have passed significant disability rights legislation into law — Australia in 1991, the United Kingdom in 1995, and the United States in 1990. New Zealand has recently completed the planning process on which such legislation would be developed. In each, the fight of people with disabilities to obtain and maintain employment is given prominent attention. This is formal recognition of the contributions employed disabled people can and do make to their countries as workers and as taxpayers.

(a) Australia

The Disability Discrimination Act of 1993 explains who is covered as well as disability rights pertaining to employment, education, accessibility, responsibilities of public entities and more.

(b) United Kingdom

The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) passed in 1995 introduced measures to end discrimination which many disabled people face in the areas of employment, access to goods, facilities and services and managing, buying or renting of land or property. United Kingdom Redux: The Disability Rights Commission Act is a separate law passed in 1999, which authorised efforts to eliminate discrimination against disabled people.

(c) United States

The Americans with Disabilities Act celebrated the 10th anniversary of its being signed into law by President George Bush (the elder). This Act prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in employment, housing, education and access to public service.

(d) New Zealand

The country has completed the planning process on which such legislation would be developed.

(e) India

Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunity, Protection of Civil Rights and Full Participation) Act was enacted in India in 1995 and came into force on 1-1-1996.

A model legislation has to be enacted for Eritrea

By taking the ups and downs of the rest of the world legislation, a model legislation has to be enacted which would be based on certain objectives which are mentioned below:

(i) To spell out the responsibility of the State towards the prevention of disabilities, protection of rights, right to human dignity, provision of medical care, education, training, employment and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities.

(ii) To create a barrier-free environment for disabled persons.

(iii) To remove any discrimination against disabled people in the sharing of development benefits vis-a-vis non-disabled persons.

(iv) To counteract any situation of abuse and the exploitation of disabled persons.

(v) To lay down strategies for the development of comprehensive programmes and services and the equalisation of opportunities for disabled persons.

(vi) To make special provisions for the integration of persons with disabilities into the social mainstream.

These aspects also have to be covered

(i) pre-school education of disabled children;

(ii) special problems of the parents of the disabled;

(iii) special problems of the female disabled;

(iv) games, sports and cultural activities;

(v) exploitation of disabled by their own families; and

(vi) higher education of the disabled.

Conclusions and recommendations

The economic scenario for the persons with disability is mostly bleak, barring a few exceptions. In Eritrea, the visualisation of a person with disability is that of a poor chap living on family members (exceptional charity) or doing some low-earning jobs. Any product acquires an image. So a disabled person who is projected as a person only capable of doing menial work or making candles or chalks or as a dependant is an unjust notion. In the competitive world today, only performance counts. It does not matter if you are disabled or otherwise. Also communication skills, which are vital for good marketing of the candidature, need to be of the top class. Every social interaction is a marketing opportunity for selling the ability and talents. When opportunity does not knock any more, everyone has to open the door and seize the opportunity.

Eritrea has been mentioned as one of those exemplary countries working hard to change this reality through its Community Based Rehabilitation Programme. Four Associations of the Disabled (hearing impaired, visual impaired, diabetics, ex-fighters) have been legally established. It is a good sign towards their taking part in nation-building. The Ministry of Labour and Human Welfare has the task of formulating policies, programmes, legislation, training and research at the national level while these are percolated down at the grass-root level by its regional offices. Following the policy of decentralisation, six regional offices have been implementing policies and programmes of the Ministry and are responsible for development activities in their respective jurisdictions. The Ministry monitors and evaluates all the activities of its regional offices.

In Eritrea, many young men and women have suffered injuries of one kind or another in these wars. It is not just the physical scars but also the emotional scars. These emotional scars are evident in the mannerism that only outsiders find "strange". For most of us, when we think of the disabled, we think of our war victims. The landmine victims, the cluster bomb victims, and today in areas occupied by Ethiopia, one can see victims of rape. Eritrea bears a lot of scars one cannot see unless one is willing to listen. On December 3rd, which is observed as International Day of Persons with a Disability, there are special remembrances of all Eritrean veterans and all remember them in prayers. Eritrea's scars are evident everywhere, even in the young. These scars are symbols of their sacrifices, these scars are evidence of their gallantry and these scars cannot take away their dignity. They stand tall despite the wheelchairs, they reach high despite the amputated limbs, they laugh even though it hurts right here, and they love and give everything that they have not lost.

Moreover, the development of a nation can only be spurred by skilled and educated human resources. Helping the PWDs to attain self-dependency is helping the family, the community and the country as a whole. In addition to the legal or moral obligation; it is also of utmost significance to the advancement of a society to help out the PWDs from dependency and make them participate in nation-building process.

The basic conclusion one could draw from all of the above is that it is virtually impossible in any country in today's world for an individual, family, institution, organization, State etc., to adequately plan for disability in view of uncertainty of disasters, wars or accidents looming large at all times. Maybe the best one can expect is not super-legislation, but a super-intranet.

The recommendations are made keeping in view only the aspects of the paper i.e. the rights, dignity of PWDs, education and employment. These are as follows:

1. Effort has to be made to promote, expand and protect the human and legal rights of persons with disabilities through the provision of information, training, advocacy and legal representation.

2. Legislation on disability has to advance the dignity, self-determination and equality of individuals with disabilities.

3. Make sure that persons with disabilities (whatever be the form) have equal opportunities in education and vocational training by keeping reserved seats for them.

4. Introduce in the regular educational curricula, inclusive education for the persons with disabilities.

5. Modify existing educational infrastructure in a way conducive to persons with disabilities.

6. Extend new educational and training institutions purposely meant for persons with disabilities.

7. Enhance the involvement of persons with disabilities in marketable vocational training schemes.

8. Create reserved places for persons with disabilities in both formal and non-formal workplaces.

9. Scale down unemployment among persons with disability, in a gradual, systematic manner.

10. National associations have to be formed depending upon the disability, then most of the PWDs' problems may be solved.

11. Travel concessions, incentives, awards, scholarship (Eritrea is providing), special quotas in education and employment has to be provided to PWDs.

12. Awards for workers and institutions, organizations etc., working for the welfare of the PWDs.

13. Calling the PWDs with nicknames which shows their disability, has to be avoided. No metaphors have to be used, one has to avoid such statements or proverbs.

14. One has to assure and guarantee an opportunity but not charity to the PWDs.

†       I am very much thankful to the staff of MOLHW for their cooperation in providing information particularly Ato Habteab Eyassu Mao, Ato Yohannes Michael (John), Mrs & Mr Dr M.I. Siddiqi (for inspiration and editing), Mrs & Mr Dr Narayana Reddy, Ato Habthem (Graphics), Ato Kidane Tesfai (Student of Law), Dr Tushar Kanti Saha, Director, School of Law (for editing), Ato Yonus, Embatkala Institute (Company Assistant) Ato Philimon, Statistics Department (Graphics), Mehrret, Law Department, Rahel, Sociology Department (Printing), Department of Marine Biology and Department of Sociology, UOA (browsing the sites). Without the encouragement of the Staff, School of Law and without the cooperation of the above, this paper would not have been completed. Thanks to one and all who helped me directly and indirectly in this endeavour. Return to Text

     * Assistant Professor, School of Law, University of Asmara. Return to Text

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